By ArabicTree | December 8, 2007
In the Arabic number system, numbers from three to ten follow a few simple rules:
- The ‘adad can take any case (depends on the sentence)
- The ‘adad is opposite in gender to the ma’duwd
- The ma’duwd is plural and majruwr
That’s it! Let’s plow through some detailed examples:
- عِندِي ثَلَاثَةُ أقلَامٍ (I have three pens): ‘indiy is the mubtada (it’s a nominal sentence). Thalaathatu is mansuwb (it’s the start of the khabr, and it’s also a mubtada). Aqlaam (the plural of qalam) is plural and majruwr, because it’s the ma’duwd of thalaathatu. Note that thalaathatu is feminine, while qalam is masculine.
- أكَلَ خَمسَ دَجَّاجاتٍ (I ate five chickens): akala is the faa’il; khamsa is the maf’ool (so it’s mansoob). Dajjaajaat is plural and majruwr (because it’s the ma’duwd). Note that dajjaaj is feminine, while khamsa is masculine. (And khamsa is mansoob because it’s maf’ool to akala.)
- اللّهُ الَّذِي خَلَقَ السَّمَاوَاتِ وَالأَرْضَ فِي سِتَّةِ أَيَّامٍ (Allah, the one who created the heavens and earth in six days [Suratul-Araaf, verse 54]): fiy is harf-uj-jarr, and sittah, the ‘adad, is majruwr. Ayaamin is plural and majruwr (it’s the ma’duwd to sittah). Note that yawm is masculine, while sittah (with ta-marbuwta) is feminine.
And in these three examples, you can see that the ‘adad can take any case, while the ma’duwd is always plural and majruwr.
And the ‘adad being opposite in gender to the ma’duwd applies in all cases of numbers from 3-9–eg. 13-19, 233-239, etc. not just from 3-9.