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    Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr)

    By ArabicTree | November 17, 2007

    Aside from nouns (things) and verbs (actions), English and Arabic also contain prepositions–words like “in”, “at”, “from”, and so on. In Arabic, these are called Huruwf-ul-Jarr (حُرُوف الجَرّ; singular is Harf-ul-Jarr).

    In Arabic grammar, the word that immediately follows the preposition becomes majruwr!

    For example, you can say: الكِتَابُ عَلَى مَكتَبِ (al-kitaabu ‘ala al-maktabi)–”The book is on the table.” Here, we see the preposition ‘ala (on), and maktab (table), the word that follows ‘ala, becomes majruwr.

    Or, you can say: البَطَّةُ فِي بَيتِكُم (al-battatu fiy baytikum)–”The duck is in your house.” Here, the preposition is fiy (in), and your house (baytikum) is majruwr. And you can have as many prepositions in a sentence as you like–just not back-to-back (eg. haadhaa fiy min …)

    The table below lists all the huruwf-ul-jarr and their meanings, the meaning really depends on the context–i.e. the meaning changes depending on where and how the harf is used. So keep that in mind insha’Allah.

    Arabic Transliteration Meaning
    فِي fiy in
    إلَى ila to (eg. travel to)
    عَلَى ‘ala on (top of)
    مِن min from
    لِ li for (eg. for you)
    مَعَ ma’a with
    بِ bi with
    حَتَّى hatta until
    مُنذُ mundhu since
    عَن aan about
    كَ ka like/as

    Topics: Beginner, Grammar | 10 Comments »

    10 Responses to “Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr)”

    1. Ibn Uthman Says:
      November 19th, 2007 at 4:36 am

      Assalamu ‘alaykum

      I think “هروف الجر” must be “حروف الجر” with a ح at the beginning, and “الكتاب على مَمْتب” must be “الكتاب على الْمَكتب” . Otherwise, a very useful post, masha Allah.

    2. Ibn Uthman Says:
      November 19th, 2007 at 4:40 am

      Also, إِلَ and حَتَّ in the list of prepositions should be إِلَى and حَتَّى respectively. Then there is also (baytikum) and (baytika). I think the latter one must be like the former.

    3. ArabicTree Says:
      November 23rd, 2007 at 12:27 pm

      Jazakumullahu khayran katheera! May Allah reward you for your attention to detail (ameen)!

    4. Ibn Saeed Says:
      December 24th, 2007 at 11:43 am

      As-salam-u-alaikum
      I’ve never read “ma’a” as part of prepositions. Can you please check?
      My teacher told me that prepositions are 17 in total (as summarized in this stanza):
      باو تاو كافو لامو واو منذ مذ خلا
      رُبّ حاشا من عدا فى عن علٰى حتّٰى الٰى

    5. ArabicTree Says:
      January 7th, 2008 at 11:17 am

      Wa’alikum as-salaam,

      I’m sure ma’a is a preposition–it’s in one of my books to learn Arabic. Can you ask your teacher what ma’a is, if it isn’t a preposition, and post it as a comment insha’allah?

    6. Umbreen Says:
      March 18th, 2010 at 1:11 pm

      Salam-o-alakum,
      Need to know why hoofe jarr FEE (in) give jarr or genitive to ,,adunya;;…………
      I mean fee-dunya.

      Please reply .Thanks

    7. ArabicTree Says:
      March 24th, 2010 at 1:06 pm

      @Umbreen, dunya ends with alif, and alif has sukoon on it — it cannot take anything else. So it doesn’t appear differently when preceeded by fee, even if it is really majroor. Allahu a’lam.

    8. sabrina tala kalaa Says:
      April 27th, 2010 at 8:46 am

      the all arabic preposition
      About: hawla حولَ By: ‘ala على
      Above: fawqa فوقَ close by: bel qurbi men بالقرب من
      according to…: wafqan li …وفقا ل close to: bejaneb …بجانب
      Across: ‘abra عبرَ Concerning: bekhosoos بخصوص
      After: ba’da بعدَ Despite: raghma رغمَ
      Against: dedda ضدَ Down: tahta تحت
      ahead of: amama أمامَ due to: naatej ‘an ناتج عن
      all over: men jaded من جديد During: khelaala خلالَ
      Along: ‘ala tool على طول except for: bestethnaa’ (th as in think) باستثناء
      Among: men bayn من بين Excluding: mostathnian مستثنياً
      Around: hawla حولَ for: li…. ل
      From: men من
      As … as: … ka ….كَ In: fi… فِ
      Aside: bejaaneb بجانب in front of: amama أمامَ
      At: ‘ala على in place of: makana …مكانَ
      away from: ba’eedan ‘an بعيدا عن in spite of: berraghmi men….بالرغم من
      because of: besababi بسبب Including: mo’taberan معتبراً
      Before: qabla قبلَ Inside: beddakhel… بالدّاخل
      Behind: waraa’ وراءَ instead of: ‘ewadan ‘an … عوضاً عن
      Below: tahta تحت Less: aqal… أقل
      Beneath: men taht من تحت Like …: methla … (or) ka …مثلَ . (or) كَ
      Beside: bejaneb بجانب Minus: naqes …ناقص
      Besides: bel idafati ila باللإضافة الى Near: qareeb… قريب
      Between: bayna بينَ near to …: qareeb men…. قريبٌ من
      Beyond: wara’a وراءَ next to: bejaneb …بجانب
      But: laken لكن Of: men (not for possessive)… من

      On: ‘ala… على
      on top of: fawqa… فوقَ
      Opposite to: ‘aksa… عكسَ
      Out: khaarej… خارج
      Outside…: bel kharej men… بالخارج
      Over: ‘ala… على
      Regarding: bekhosoos…بخصوص
      Save: bestithnaa’ (th as in think)…باستثناء
      Without: bedoon…بدون
      Since: mundu…منذُ
      Than: men… من

      Through: khelaala …خلالَ
      Till: ila (or) ila ghaayat …الى or الى غاية
      To: ila …إلى
      Towards: bettejaah … باتجاه
      Under: tahta…تحت
      Up: fawq فوق
      Versus: ‘aaksa …عكسَ
      Via: ‘abra….عبر
      With: ma’a….مع

    9. Lester Rios Says:
      May 7th, 2011 at 6:17 am

      Prepositions (Huruwf-ul-Jarr) | Arabic Tree is definitely a nicely put together blog. I dont think my web-site http://tagza.com/user/view/history/login/hatchercasgid@g has much in common with yours, although I can (and have) learnt quite a bit from you, cheers, Lester Rios

    10. Asma Says:
      November 9th, 2011 at 8:26 am

      Ma’a menas “with” and it is a preposition although a lot of teachers do not mention it as a preposition. Ma’a therefore makes the following word genitive (majroor). It basically works as Idhaafa according to many prominent grammar books written by native Arabs. Hope this helps.

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