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Prepositions–Huruwf-ul-Jarr–cause the word that follows them to become majruwr. In Arabic, the prepositions are: fiy, ila, ‘ala, min, li, ma’a, bi, hatta, mundhu, ‘an, and ka; the meaning varies, depending on the context, but we’ve listed the common meanings, as well as some examples to clarify usage. Prepositions cannot occur back-to-back.
The possessive case is when you have something or someone that owns/has something else. For example, “the book of Allah”–Allah is the possessor, and the book is the possessed. Or, in “her pen,” she (someone) is the possessor, and the pen is the possessed.
In Arabic, the possessor is called the mudaf ilayh, and [...]
Arabic has two types of nouns: definite and indefinite. (Definite means it’s something specific–the tree in front of you, your bag, the student’s book, etc. Indefinite means it’s not specific–a tree, a car, a book, a bag.)
Words with double tanween are indefinite, while words with single tanween and alif-lam in front of them) [...]
There are two interrogative particles: alif-with-hamza (َأ) and “hal” (حَل). Both mean roughly the same thing, and can be used to ask a variety of questions, such as “is”, “are”, and “did”.
Sound masculine plurals end with -uwna in the marfoo’ case (eg. Muslimuwna), and -iyna in the majruwr and mansoob case (eg. Muslimiyna). Other patterns exist, broken masculine patterns.
In Arabic, the numbers one and two are NOT actually numbers, but adjectives–this is because the form of words already implies if the object is singular, dual, or plural. How do we use these numbers, then? For emphasis.
Laysa means “is not” or “was not.” It’s conjugated the same way as a maadi verb. You can use laysa by itself, or with the preposition bi. The mubtada becomes “ismu laysa,” and is marfoo’; the khabar becomes “khabaru laysa,” and is mansoob.
The adjective (na’at) must match the described (man’oot) in four things: number, gender, case, and definitivity. The na’at FOLLOWS the man’oot. See the examples!
As you may remember, singular feminine words in Arabic end with ta-marbuwta (ة)–with a handful of exceptions. Some of these exceptions are:
Ash-Shams (الشَمسُ): the sun
Qidrun (قِدرٌ): pot
Harbun (حَربٌ): war
Also, any body-part that humans have in pairs is considered feminine. This includes:
3ynun (عَينٌ): eyes
2thnun (أُثنٌ): ears
Yahdun (يَهدٌ): hands
All nouns in Arabic fall into one of two genders: masculine (muthakkar) or feminine (mu’annath). There IS no third, gender-neutral version–though the masculine can be used to mean both. Many words have both masculine and feminine versions.« Previous EntriesNext Entries »